Documented history of Sri Lanka dates back to 3rd Century BC. when the island was among the most advanced and developed nations of the modern world and seed of an important historical Civilization in Asia. the ruined cities of anuradhapura, Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, and Sigiriya extending from 3rd Century BC to 12th century A.D. record a grandeur unsurpassed. The very first capital city of Sri Lanka founded in the 5th century BC according to the ancient Sinhala chronicle Mahavansa, was a model of planning with precincts precincts set aside for huntsmen, scavengers, heretics as well as for foreigners. There were separate cemeteries for high and low casts, hostels & hospitals.
Anuradhapura was an example par excellence of the hydraulic civilization. The construction of reservoirs, canals and irrigation channels during this period exhibited an amazing knowledge of trigonometry and the design of reservoirs a thorough grasp of hydraulic principles. the ornamental scale of the large reservoirs is compelling evidence of a thriving economy and state structure which had resources from an agricultural surplus and profits from trade to invest in these projects as well as on religious and public buildings designed on a lavish scale. The unique feature of Buddhist Sri Lanka is the Stupa (Dagoba), which enshrined relics of the Buddha and were objects of veneration. It is generally a solid hemispherical dome, which express the serenity and simplicity the quintessence of Buddhism. The “Rajarata” - the kings country is dotted with this stupid and the picture is lakes which has an irresistible charm for the visitor There are many important stupas at Anuradhapura.